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Sarcelle
17.08.2007, 12:03
Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza (H7) virus infection in mice and ferrets: Enhanced virulence of Eurasian H7N7 viruses isolated from humans.

J Virol. 2007 Aug 8;

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=17686867&dopt=AbstractPlus

Belser JA, Lu X, Maines TR, Smith C, Li Y, Donis RO, Katz JM, Tumpey TM.
Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333; Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322; Canadian Centre for Human and Animal Health, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Before 2003, only occasional case reports of human H7 influenza virus infections occurred as a result of direct animal-to-human transmission or laboratory accidents; most of these infections resulted in conjunctivitis. An increase in isolation of avian influenza A H7 viruses from poultry outbreaks and humans has raised concerns that additional zoonotic transmissions of influenza viruses from poultry to humans may occur. To better understand the pathogenesis of H7 viruses, we have investigated their ability to cause disease in the mouse and ferret models. Mice were infected intranasally with H7 viruses of high and low pathogenicity isolated from the Netherlands in 2003, the northeastern United States in 2002-03, and Canada in 2004, and were monitored for morbidity, mortality, viral replication and proinflammatory cytokine production in respiratory organs. All H7 viruses replicated efficiently in the respiratory tracts of mice, but only the Netherlands/03 isolates replicated in systemic organs, including the brain. Only A/NL/219/03 (NL/219), an H7N7 virus isolated from a single fatal human case, was highly lethal for mice and caused severe disease in ferrets. Supporting the apparent ocular tropism observed in humans following infection with viruses of the H7 subtype, both Eurasian and North American lineage H7 viruses were detected in the mouse eye following ocular inoculation, whereas an H7N2 virus isolated from the human respiratory tract was not. Therefore, in general, the relative virulence and cell tropism of the H7 viruses in these animal models correlated with the observed virulence in humans.

PMID: 17686867 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Kommentar: H7 Viren galten bisher landläufig als wenig pathogen, mit hauptsächlich auf Augensymptome wie Konjunktiitis beschränkter Erkrankung.

Mehrfach wurde der Versuch unternommen, den tragischen Fall des niederländischen Veterinärs mit individual konstituonellen Gegebenheiten zu erklären.

Die neue Arbeit räumt mit diesen Vorstellungen in eindeutiger Weise auf und belegt, dass es sich bei der in NL im Jahr 2003 aufgetretenen Variante um einen strain mit erweitertem Organtropismus und hoher Pathogenität handelte. Der hollandische Veterinär erkrankte keinerswegs wegen bestehender Vorerkrankungen oder Immunschwäche, sondern fiel einer ungewöhnlich aggressiven Variante zum Opfer. Die Umstände, unter denen sich dieser strain entwickeln konnte, bleiben offen.

Die neuen Daten belegen erneut die Unberechenbarkeit in der Evolution hochpathogener Influenzaviren und die von ihnen ausgehenden, unabwägbaren Risiken.